Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and sesame oil have been shown to have antioxidant, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, and blood sugar lowering properties. However, they also can be a significant source of heavy metals and may be estrogenic. Sesame seeds are an abundant dietary source of fiber, copper and iron, and also contain significant levels of calcium, CoQ10, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc.
Sesame seeds also are a source of the lignans sesamol, sesamin, sesamolin, and sesaminol, which have been shown to have anti-cancer properties. Sesamol has been shown to inhibit melanin synthesis in mouse melanoma cells, resulting in reduced viability and proliferation of the cells. Sesaminol glucosides have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis of premalignant lesions of rat colon in the laboratory. One Korean study found that frequent consumption of sesame seed oil was associated with reduced risk of stomach cancer.

Breast cancer-related effects of consuming sesame seeds and sesame oil

While sesame seeds and sesame oil have some chemopreventive properties, on balance they should be limited or avoided for those with breast cancer.

Sesame has some chemopreventive properties

Sesame seed lignans are converted in the human intestine to the estrogen-like compounds enterolactone and enterodiol. The sesame seed lignan sesamin has been found to reduce mammary tumor size in rats with hormone receptor positive (ER+/PR+) tumors. Postmenopausal women with breast cancer and a high intake of the lignan enterolactone have been found to be less likely to die from their breast cancer than those with a low intake. Enterolactone has also been found to increase the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to radiation, thereby potentially enhancing the treatment effects of radiotherapy.
Sesame seeds are a very good source of fiber. High intake of dietary fiber has been reported to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer.
Sesame seeds are also a good source of dietary selenium, which is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. A study of Chinese women found a reduction in the risk of breast cancer among women who used sesame oil for cooking compared with those who did not.

Sesame has the potential to promote breast cancer

There is evidence that sesame seeds and sesame seed oil can promote breast cancer under some circumstances. Several studies have found that sesame seed compounds can stimulate the growth of estrogen-dependent (ER+) breast cancer cells. One study using a mouse model of premenopausal ER+ breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between tamoxifen and sesame seeds in the diet found that sesame seeds not only failed to inhibit human breast cancer growth, but also tended to negate the cancer inhibitory effect of tamoxifen by promoting cancer cell proliferation and decreasing apoptosis. A 2024 study reported that sesame oil effectively maintained serum estradiol (E2) and aromatase levels in ovariectomized rats, thereby improving their bone health.
Sesame seeds contain relatively high levels of copper, which could contribute to angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer, especialy in women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) or triple negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) disease.
In addition, the fatty acid profile of sesame seeds and sesame seed oil may be associated with higher risk of breast cancer. Sesame seeds have a high fat content, consisting primarily of linoleic acid (approximately 44% of total), oleic acid (39%), and palmitic acid (9%). Linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, has been shown to encourage the growth of mammary tumors in mice. Note that flaxseed, to which sesame seeds are sometimes compared, contains over 55% alpha-linolenic acid (a beneficial omega-3 fatty acid), whereas sesame seeds contain less than 1%.
Oleic acid has been found both to promote and to inhibit breast cancer, depending on the mixture of other fatty acids and other components of the foods in which it is found. Oleic acid has been shown to increase the bioavailability of alpha-carotene consumed concurrently, which may help explain why high raw vegetable/high olive oil dietary patterns appear to be protective against breast cancer. Consumption of palmitic acid (also found in sesame seeds) has been found to be associated with increased breast cancer risk.

Additional comments

Highly refined sesame oil is less desirable than extra-virgin or cold pressed sesame oil since refining greatly reduces the lignin content of the oil.
There is some evidence that breathing cooking oil fumes can contribute to lung cancer and that sesame oil heated to the smoking point may act as a carcinogen.
Sesame paste and sesame seed butter produced in China are subject to less stringent quality and safety standards than U.S. products and even these lower standards may not be met. One Chinese study found aflatoxin B1 in 37 of 100 sesame paste samples measured. Sesame seeds are prone to molds which produce aflatoxins, which are mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic and cause immuno-suppression in humans. Aflatoxin B1 has been shown to cause liver cancer, especially in hepatitis B-positive individuals. However, note that the dark color of Chinese sesame oil is due to the fact that the seeds are roasted before processing, not because of any contamination. Cold-pressed sesame oil made from raw sesame seeds is close to colorless.
Tahini, a paste used in Near and Far East cuisine, is made of ground sesame seed kernels. Halvah is a confection made with sesame seeds and sesame seed oil that is high in fat, cholesterol and sugar.

Sources of information provided in this webpage

The information above, which is updated continually as new research becomes available, has been developed based solely on the results of academic studies. Clicking on any of the underlined terms will take you to its tag or webpage, which contain more extensive information.
Below are links to 20 recent studies concerning this sesame seeds, sesame oil and their components. For a more complete list of studies, please click on sesame.