Studies have not established the effect of almonds on breast cancer

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Effect of almonds on breast cancer not established
By "almond," we mean the nut of the sweet almond tree (Prunus amygdalus dulcis), not the bitter almond nut (Prunus amygdalus amara). Almonds are a good dietary source of vitamin E, riboflavin, magnesium, copper, chromium, manganese, and phosphorus, as well as soluble fiber and monounsaturated fats. Almonds with skin contain numerous phytochemicals.
Almond components have been shown to have high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of almonds has been shown in numerous studies to help lower cholesterol, reduce blood sugar, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Habitual almond consumption does not in and of itself appear to lead to weight gain.

Cancer-related effects of eating almonds

Almond consumption has been associated with lower risk of colon cancer. Although almonds share some of the favorable characteristics of other tree nuts such as walnuts, there is little specific evidence concerning almond consumption and breast cancer risk.

Additional comments

Almond milk brands listing carrageenan (a breast carcinogen) as an ingredient should be avoided.
Almonds should be consumed in moderation since they contain some copper (approximately 0.32 mg per ounce), which can promote angiogenesis. While copper is a vital nutrient, women with breast cancer should not exceed the RDA (recommended daily allowance) of approximately 0.9 mg. Almond milk also has significant copper content.
Ideally, almonds should be eaten unroasted and with their skins on. Almond oil (i.e., sweet almond oil) has been found to have beneficial effects on cholesterol profile and it appears that the favorable effect of almonds is due to components in the oil portion of these nuts. Pure almond extract normally is manufactured using a small amount of bitter almond oil but it is relatively safe in small quantities, especially when used in baking and other forms of cooking involving heat.
Marzipan can be a relatively healthy confection, as long as it is made with ground sweet almonds. Almond paste has a lower ratio of almonds to sugar and is less desirable. Marzipan made with a substantial portion of bitter almonds or peanuts, and persipan made with apricot or peach kernels should be avoided.
Almond oil can safely be used in the massage of seriously ill patients and patients undergoing chemotherapy. On the other hand, bitter almond oil, which can cause cyanide poisoning, should not be ingested or used on the skin unless prussic acid (cyanide)-free.

Laetrile-based cancer treatment

Laetrile, a synthetic form of amygdalin (found in bitter almonds and apricot kernels), has long been used as an alternative cancer treatment, although it is less popular now than in the 1970s and early 1980s when numerous laetrile clinics in Tijuana, Mexico were established to meet the demand from U.S. cancer patients. The claim that laetrile is an effective and benign cancer treatment is not supported by sound clinical data. Laetrile has been found ineffective in shrinking tumors, increasing survival time, and alleviating cancer symptoms. Although sometimes referred to as vitamin B17, laetrile is not a vitamin. Some cases of acute accidental cyanide poisoning have been reported with the use of laetrile in combination with vitamin C. Vitamin C is known to increase the conversion of amygdalin to cyanide and reduce body stores of cysteine, which is used to detoxify cyanide.
Below are links to recent studies concerning this food. For a more complete list of studies, please click on almonds.

Selected breast cancer studies

  • Association of Total Nut, Tree Nut, Peanut, and Peanut Butter Consumption with Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies Cite
    Naghshi S, Sadeghian M, Nasiri M, Mobarak S, Asadi M, Sadeghi O. Association of Total Nut, Tree Nut, Peanut, and Peanut Butter Consumption with Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Advances in Nutrition. Oxford University Press (OUP); 2020; 10.1093/advances/nmaa152
  • Micronutrients and Breast Cancer Progression: A Systematic Review Cite
    Cuenca-Micó O, Aceves C. Micronutrients and Breast Cancer Progression: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. MDPI AG; 2020; 12:3613 10.3390/nu12123613
  • Mitochondrial copper depletion suppresses triple-negative breast cancer in mice Cite
    Cui L, Gouw AM, LaGory EL, Guo S, Attarwala N, Tang Y, et al. Mitochondrial copper depletion suppresses triple-negative breast cancer in mice. Nature Biotechnology. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2020; 10.1038/s41587-020-0707-9
  • Intratumoral Copper Modulates PD-L1 Expression and Influences Tumor Immune Evasion Cite
    Voli F, Valli E, Lerra L, Kimpton K, Saletta F, Giorgi FM, et al. Intratumoral Copper Modulates PD-L1 Expression and Influences Tumor Immune Evasion. Cancer Research. American Association for Cancer Research (AACR); 2020; 80:4129-4144 10.1158/0008-5472.can-20-0471
  • Legume and Nuts Consumption in Relation to Odds of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study Cite
    Sharif Y, Sadeghi O, Benisi-Kohansal S, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A. Legume and Nuts Consumption in Relation to Odds of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study. Nutrition and Cancer. Informa UK Limited; 2020;:1-10 10.1080/01635581.2020.1773874
  • Meta-analysis of the association between nut consumption and the risks of cancer incidence and cancer-specific mortality Cite
    Zhang D, Dai C, Zhou L, Li Y, Liu K, Deng Y, et al. Meta-analysis of the association between nut consumption and the risks of cancer incidence and cancer-specific mortality. Aging. Impact Journals, LLC; 2020; 12:10772-10794 10.18632/aging.103292
  • Can Amygdalin Provide any Benefit in Integrative Anticancer Treatment? Cite
    Třísková A, Rudá Kučerová J. Can Amygdalin Provide any Benefit in Integrative Anticancer Treatment?. Klinicka Onkologie. Care Comm; 2019; 32 10.14735/amko2019360
  • Tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: The Netherlands Cohort Study Cite
    van den Brandt PA, Nieuwenhuis L. Tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: The Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer Causes & Control. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2017; 29:63-75 10.1007/s10552-017-0979-7
  • In-vitro antioxidative potential of different fractions from Prunus dulcis seeds: Vis a vis antiproliferative and antibacterial activities of active compounds Cite
    Dhingra N, Kar A, Sharma R, Bhasin S. In-vitro antioxidative potential of different fractions from Prunus dulcis seeds: Vis a vis antiproliferative and antibacterial activities of active compounds. South African Journal of Botany. Elsevier BV; 2017; 108:184-192 10.1016/j.sajb.2016.10.013
  • Amygdalin, quackery or cure? Cite
    Blaheta RA, Nelson K, Haferkamp A, Juengel E. Amygdalin, quackery or cure?. Phytomedicine. Elsevier BV; 2016; 23:367-376 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.004
  • Melatonin enhancement of the radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells is associated with the modulation of proteins involved in estrogen biosynthesis Cite
    Alonso-González C, González A, Martínez-Campa C, Menéndez-Menéndez J, Gómez-Arozamena J, García-Vidal A, et al. Melatonin enhancement of the radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells is associated with the modulation of proteins involved in estrogen biosynthesis. Cancer Letters. Elsevier BV; 2016; 370:145-152 10.1016/j.canlet.2015.10.015
  • Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer Cite
    Bin Sayeed MS, Ameen SS. Beta-Sitosterol: A Promising but Orphan Nutraceutical to Fight Against Cancer. Nutrition and Cancer. Informa UK Limited; 2015; 67:1216-1222 10.1080/01635581.2015.1087042
  • Breast cancer cells: Modulation by melatonin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system – A review Cite
    Vriend J, Reiter RJ. Breast cancer cells: Modulation by melatonin and the ubiquitin-proteasome system – A review. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Elsevier BV; 2015; 417:1-9 10.1016/j.mce.2015.09.001
  • The Protective Effect of Peanut, Walnut, and Almond Consumption on the Development of Breast Cancer Cite
    Soriano-Hernandez AD, Madrigal-Perez DG, Galvan-Salazar HR, Arreola-Cruz A, Brise�o-Gomez L, Guzm�n-Esquivel J, et al. The Protective Effect of Peanut, Walnut, and Almond Consumption on the Development of Breast Cancer. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. S. Karger AG; 2015; 80:89-92 10.1159/000369997
  • Inhibition of tumor progression by oral piceatannol in mouse 4T1 mammary cancer is associated with decreased angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration Cite
    Song H, Jung JI, Cho HJ, Her S, Kwon S, Yu R, et al. Inhibition of tumor progression by oral piceatannol in mouse 4T1 mammary cancer is associated with decreased angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Elsevier BV; 2015; 26:1368-1378 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.07.005
  • Melatonin Regulates Angiogenic Factors under Hypoxia in Breast Cancer Cell Lines Cite
    Victorasso Jardim-Perassi B, Repolês Lourenço M, Mandarini Doho G, Helen Grígolo I, Bottaro Gelaleti G, Carvalho Ferreira L, et al. Melatonin Regulates Angiogenic Factors under Hypoxia in Breast Cancer Cell Lines. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.; 2016; 16:347-358 10.2174/1871520615666150511094201
  • Phenolic Compounds in Rosaceae Fruit and Nut Crops Cite
    Ogah O, Watkins CS, Ubi BE, Oraguzie NC. Phenolic Compounds in Rosaceae Fruit and Nut Crops. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. American Chemical Society (ACS); 2014; 62:9369-9386 10.1021/jf501574q
  • Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study Cite
    Farvid MS, Cho E, Chen WY, Eliassen AH, Willett WC. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study. BMJ. BMJ; 2014; 348:g3437-g3437 10.1136/bmj.g3437
  • Exposure to common food additive carrageenan leads to reduced sulfatase activity and increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human epithelial cells Cite
    Yang B, Bhattacharyya S, Linhardt R, Tobacman J. Exposure to common food additive carrageenan leads to reduced sulfatase activity and increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycans in human epithelial cells. Biochimie. Elsevier BV; 2012; 94:1309-1316 10.1016/j.biochi.2012.02.031