oranges

Studies have not established the effect of oranges on breast cancer

Oranges contain substances that have been shown to be antiproliferative and antioxidant. The major antioxidant component of orange juice is vitamin C. Studies have also found that oranges inhibit breast cancer in mice and have proapoptic effects on breast cancer cells.

Breast cancer-related effects of eating oranges

Oranges and tangerines and their peels contain flavonoids (hesperidin, tangeretin, naringenin, nobiletin, quercetin) that have been shown to have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on breast cancer cells. Dietary flavonoids are also believed to aid the body's antioxidant defenses against free radicals. Oranges also contain limonoids, which appear to possess substantial anticancer activity.

Orange juice has been shown to reduce the extent of DNA damage caused by certain mutagens. Although initial studies concerning the chemopreventive properties of oranges are promising, they have for the most part been conducted primarily with in vitro cell culture and animal models. However, Korean and Uruguayan studies have found an association between orange juice consumption and lower incidence of breast cancer.

Additional comments

Citrus peel products and extracts should not be used during treatment with tamoxifen. This includes orange peel and tangeretin supplements, orange flavored teas, orange marmalade, dried tangerine peel (an ingredient in many Chinese dishes such as Orange Chicken), orange peel extract, and citrus oil. Tangeretin has been shown to interfere with the effectiveness of tamoxifen treatment.

Hesperidin, a flavanone found in oranges, tangerines, kumquats, lemons, limes and grapefruit, has the potential to interfere with cyclophosphamide treatment. Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent frequently used in combination with anthracyclines (Adriamycin, epirubicin) and/or taxanes (Taxol, Taxotere) to treat breast cancer. Examples of chemotherapy regimens incorporating cyclophosphamide include TEC (docetaxel, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide), TAC (taxotere, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide), and FEC (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil). Alkylating agents strongly promote oxidation, leading to the concern that antioxidants (which, by definition, inhibit oxidation) might prevent alkylating agents from working properly. Hesperidin is found most abundantly in the peel, pith and membranous parts of oranges and other citrus fruits. Similar to tangeretin, food sources include orange tea, unfiltered orange juice, orange marmalade, and dishes that incorporate citrus peel such as Szechuan Orange Chicken.

Below are links to recent studies concerning this food. For a more complete list, including less recent studies, please click on oranges.

Tags: D-limonene, flavone, hesperetin, naringenin, orange, proliferation, tangeretin, vitaminC

Selected breast cancer studies

Hesperidin as a preventive resistance agent in MCF-7 breast cancer cells line resistance to doxorubicin Chemotherapeutic effect of tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavone studied in 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats Orange Juice and Cancer Chemoprevention Comparison of Phenolic Compounds of Orange Juice Processed by Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) and Conventional Thermal Pasteurization Vitamin C intake and breast cancer mortality in a cohort of Swedish women Antiproliferative activity of peels, pulps and seeds of 61 fruits Naringin inhibits growth potential of human triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway Modulating effects of hesperidin on key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, lipid profile, and membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis Human breast tissue disposition and bioactivity of limonene in women with early stage breast cancer Citrus Fruit Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: A Quantitative Systematic Review The citrus flavonone hesperetin prevents letrozole-induced bone loss in a mouse model of breast cancer Hesperetin impairs glucose uptake and inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells Fruit, vegetable, and animal food intake and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor status Hesperidin Inhibits Cyclophosphamide-Induced Tumor Growth Delay in Mice Bioactivation of the citrus flavonoid nobiletin by CYP1 enzymes in MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells The naringenin-induced proapoptotic effect in breast cancer cell lines holds out against a high bisphenol a background Combinatorial Antitumor Effect of Naringenin and Curcumin Elicit Angioinhibitory Activities In Vivo The citrus flavonone hesperetin inhibits growth of aromatase-expressing MCF-7 tumor in ovariectomized athymic mice Effect of flavonone hesperidin on the apoptosis of human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 Naringenin reduces lung metastasis in a breast cancer resection model



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