Hot peppers include peppers of many varieties in the genus Capsicum that are characterized by intense heat resulting from their capsaicinoid contents. Examples include cayenne chili peppers, hot chilli peppers, jalapeņo peppers, and Sichuan peppers. Also included in this category are hot sauce, chili powder, red pepper flakes and red pepper paste. Not included are black pepper or bell peppers (or other mild or sweet peppers). By hot sauce, we mean supermarket sauces such as Tabasco Sauce and various Louisiana hot sauces, as well as specialty sauces advertised as fiery or hot in which the heat is derived from capsaicin-containing peppers. By chili powder, we mean the common supermarket spice mixture made primarily from the dried, ground fruit of red chili peppers (Capsicum annum L.), as well as specialty chili powders advertised as hot.
Hot peppers have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiarthritic, analgesic, and antithrombotic properties and may improve cholesterol levels and glucose metabolism and assist in weight loss. Most peppers are good dietary sources of capsaicin, beta-carotene, lycopene (red varieties) and vitamin C, as well as flavonoids such as quercetin and luteolin.
Studies concerning hot peppers, capsaicin and cancer have produced mixed results. On the one hand, capsaicin has been shown to induce apoptosis in several different types of cancer cells and mechanisms have been proposed to explain its apparent anti-cancer activity. On the other hand, capsaicin also appears to act as a carcinogen in some parts of the body.
As noted above, capsaicin has been shown to induce apoptosis or have chemoprotective actions in the laboratory in a variety of human cancer cells, including lung, pancreatic, bladder, colon, urothelial, and prostate cancer cells. Population studies have found hot pepper consumption to be associated with lower risks of lung and liver cancers. The population-based evidence with respect to colon cancer is inconsistent.
Frequent consumption of hot peppers has been found to be associated with esophageal, gall bladder and gastric (stomach and intestinal) cancers in multiple population studies. In Chileans (who have among the highest rates of gall bladder cancer in the world), those with the highest intake of red chilli peppers and a history of gallstone disease have the highest risk of developing gall bladder cancer. One Mexican study found that intake of capsaicin was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer independent of H. pylori infection. Maternal consumption of chili peppers during pregnancy has also been found to be associated with subsequent higher risk for the child of medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), a common childhood brain tumor.
Breast cancer-related effects of consuming hot peppers
Capsaicin has been shown to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells, including HER2/Neu overexpressing (HER2+) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-overexpressing breast cancer. Several population studies have found an association between hot pepper consumption and lower incidence of breast cancer.
There is some evidence that breast cancer survivors are at increased risk of developing stomach cancer. Lobular breast cancer survivors in particular are vulnerable to gastric metastases. Women with lobular breast cancer and those with gallstones, as well as pregnant women, should moderate their hot pepper consumption. On the other hand, hot pepper consumption may be beneficial for other women with breast cancer or those at risk. By this we mean modest amounts up to several times per week. Large or frequent meals that have been made very hot by the incorporation of one or more forms of hot peppers are to be avoided, as are capsaicin supplements.
The heat of red chilli peppers does not protect them from aflatoxin, which has been found in some samples. Aflatoxins, which are produced by various species of Aspergillus fungus, are mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic and cause immuno-suppression in humans. Aflatoxin B1 has been shown to cause liver cancer, especially in hepatitis B-positive individuals. One study of aflatoxin in Indonesian foods found that peanut-chilli sauces had one of the highest percentages of aflatoxin contamination, indicating that the addition of chili peppers to peanut sauce did not neutralize the aflatoxin that probably came, in part, from the peanuts. Buyers of hot peppers, sauces containing hot peppers, or hot pepper paste from specialty markets should assure themselves of their safety and quality.
Non-organic peppers must be washed very thoroughly to remove pesticide residue as much as possible.
Below are links to recent studies concerning this food. For a more complete list of studies, please click on hot peppers.