recommended for breast cancer in moderation
Like broccoli, cabbage, and kale, horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a brassica vegetable. Components of horseradish have been shown to have anti-hypercholesterolemic, antimutagenic, and both antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects. Horseradish and wasabi (Japanese horseradish) have been reported to have anti-cancer effects due to the glucosinolate sinigrin and various isothiocyanates, including allyl isothiocyanate. Horseradish also contains flavonoids such as kaempferol. Horseradish has been shown to inhibit the growth of food poisoning bacteria and fungi. Raw cruciferous vegetables have been shown to reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Horseradish and wasabi have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of colon, lung, pancreatic, prostate and stomach cancer cells.
Breast cancer-related effects of
Isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to have chemopreventive and anti-angiogenic effects in breast cancer cell studies and animal models of breast cancer.
While one carefully designed study of Chinese women found that brassica vegetable consumption was associated with significantly reduced breast cancer risk, population studies specifically evaluating the impact of consuming horseradish or wasabi are not available.
Uncooked horseradish root typically is used in making horseradish sauce (the root can also be used simply grated). This preserves much of its anti-cancer properties, since cooking can substantially reduce or destroy isothiocyanates.
Cruciferous vegetables contain thioglucoside compounds that can interfere with the formation of thyroid hormone. Horseradish and wasabi are both toxic at high doses.
Selected breast cancer studies
Health Promoting Effects of Brassica-Derived Phytochemicals: From Chemopreventive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities to Epigenetic Regulation
Fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study
Sulforaphane inhibits mammary adipogenesis by targeting adipose mesenchymal stem cells
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), a neglected medical and condiment species with a relevant glucosinolate profile: a review
Metastasis of Breast Tumor Cells to Brain Is Suppressed by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in a Novel In Vivo Metastasis Model
Post-diagnosis Cruciferous Vegetable Consumption and Breast Cancer Outcomes: a Report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project
Cruciferous vegetables intake is inversely associated with risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis
Chemopreventive and anti-angiogenic effects of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate in an N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer animal model
ERK-modulated intrinsic signaling and G2/M phase arrest contribute to the induction of apoptotic death by allyl isothiocyanate in MDA-MB-468 human breast adenocarcinoma cells
Indole-3-Carbinol disrupts Estrogen Receptor-alpha dependent expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor and Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 and proliferation of human breast cancer cells
Diindolilmethane (DIM) selectively inhibits cancer stem cells
Low concentrations of isothiocyanates protect mesenchymal stem cells from oxidative injuries, while high concentrations exacerbate DNA damage
Bioactive Dietary Supplements Reactivate ER Expression in ER-Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Active Chromatin Modifications
Cruciferous vegetables and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies
The Safety of Cruciferous Plants in Humans: A Systematic Review
Kaempferol protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro
Natural isothiocyanates: Genotoxic potential versus chemoprevention
Sulforaphane inhibits the growth of KPL-1 human breast cancer cells in vitro and suppresses the growth and metastasis of orthotopically transplanted KPL-1 cells in female athymic mice
Comparison of the Effects of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate and Sulforaphane on Gene Expression in Breast Cancer and Normal Mammary Epithelial Cells
Regulation of estrogen receptor α expression in human breast cancer cells by sulforaphane