What should HER2/neu breast cancer patients and survivors eat?
Up to 25 percent of breast cancers overexpress the HER2/neu gene. HER2/neu has a role in the signal transduction pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation, which accounts for the reputation of aggressiveness of this type of breast cancer. However, there are some foods and spices that have been shown to be especially potent in inhibiting HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer cell growth and proliferation and promoting apoptotic cell death. Some other foods have been found to amplify the effects of Herceptin, which is used to treat HER2+ breast cancer.
Apigenin, a flavone found in foods such as parsley, celery, guava berries, bell peppers and Chinese cabbage, has been found to increase HER2+ cell death, as well as enhancing the effectiveness of Taxol and 5-FU, which are sometimes used to treat HER2+ breast cancer.
Melatonin, which is found in almonds, cherries, tomatoes, walnuts and oats, has been shown to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) and reduce proliferation of HER2+ breast cancer cells. Note that red meat consumption has been shown to reduce circulating melatonin.
A relatively high omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the diet is associated with reduced risk of HER2+ breast cancer. The combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, found in fatty fish) and curcumin (the main active ingredient of turmeric), has been shown to be more effective in increasing programmed cell death of HER2+ breast cancer cells than either compound used separately.
Foods that inhibit HER2/neu breast cancer growth and proliferation
The following foods and spices or their components have been found specifically to inhibit the growth or proliferation of HER2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells and have also been found to reduce breast cancer risk in general:
Foods and supplements that promote HER2/neu breast cancer growth
One study reported that alcohol consumption promoted premenopausal tumor development in a mouse model of HER2+ breast cancer. A small Korean study found that soybean and soy isoflavone consumption was associated with increased risk of recurrence among women with HER2+ disease, whereas it reduced risk of relapse in HER2- women. Preliminary evidence suggests that taking anti-oxidant vitamin supplements could enable early-stage HER2+ tumor cells to survive whereas they otherwise would die. In addition, folic acid has been shown to promote the growth of mammary tumors while increasing HER2 expression in an animal model of breast cancer.
Foods that result in higher omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio
The following foods are good dietary sources of omega-3 fatty acids:
Breast cancer patients and survivors with HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer should eat a wide variety of the foods on our recommended food list and limit or avoid those on our avoid list in addition to emphasizing the foods and spices on the lists above.
Under the list of tags below are links to recent studies on this topic. For a more complete list of studies, please click on HER2+.